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limonite troughs and saprolite highs

A Study on Classification of Limonite and Saprolite from

Dec 05, 2020 Saprolite-type ore characterized by high magnesia and silica contents is treated by pyrometallurgy process. On the other hand, limonite-type ore

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Factors Affecting the Upgrading of a Nickeliferous

limonite/saprolite blended feeds. Because of the low recoveries and high operating costs, the Caron process is generally considered to be uneconomic [1,10]. Each of these three processing options faces different challenges, although in general they are costly, energy intensive and produce a high

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Saprolite Wikipedia

Saprolite (from Greek σαπρος = putrid + λιθος = rock) is a chemically weathered rock (literally, it means "rotten rock"). More intense weathering results in a continuous transition from saprolite to laterite.. Saprolites form in the lower zones of soil horizons and represent deep weathering of the bedrock surface. In lateritic regoliths regoliths are the loose layer of rocks

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Scandium-Bearing Minerals in Lateritic Nickel Ores of the

Miocene Sulawesi Ophiolite Belt. Limonite ores are low in Ni and high in Fe. 2. O. 3. and Sc, whereas underlying saprolite ores are high in Ni and low in Fe. 2. O. 3. and Sc. Results of whole-rock analysis of the nickel ores suggest a positive relationship between Fe. 2. O. 3. and Sc contents. The limonite

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An overview on the possibility of scandium and REE

enriched in limonite or saprolite since Sc is relatively mobile (soluble) in a limonite zone although it is an immobile element. In acidic limonite zone Sc3+ is not likely to adsorbed on hematite and goethite. In neutral-alkaline saprolite zone Sc3+ may be partially adsorbed in saprolite

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Tsingshan pulls the matte out from under nickel's rally

Mar 04, 2021 "Over time, saprolite supply to NPI will become an issue, whereas HPAL can have a longer-term future." Saprolite is formed from chemically-weathered rock formations. Saprolite and limonite are two types of laterite ore, the world's main nickel ore source. Both are found in top nickel miner Indonesia. ($1 = 6.4676 yuan)

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PAPER OPEN ACCESS High pressure acid leaching: a newly

limonite and saprolite from HPL mine is presented in Table 2 and Table 3. Mineralogy nickel laterite, the metallic elements mainly exist in the form of metallic oxides in ores: NiO, CoO, Co2O3, CaO, FeO, FeO(OH),MgO, MnO, ZnO and SiO2 [8]. Table 2. Limonite nickel ore composition (in %) Table 3. Limonite nickel ore composition (in %)

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Lateritic nickel ore deposits Wikipedia

Limonite type laterites (or oxide type) are highly enriched in iron due to very strong leaching of magnesium and silica. They consist largely of goethite and contain 1-2% nickel incorporated in goethite. Absence of the limonite zone in the ore deposits is due to erosion. Silicate type (or saprolite type) nickel ore formed beneath the limonite

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Scandium-Bearing Minerals in Lateritic Nickel Ores of the

Miocene Sulawesi Ophiolite Belt. Limonite ores are low in Ni and high in Fe. 2. O. 3. and Sc, whereas underlying saprolite ores are high in Ni and low in Fe. 2. O. 3. and Sc. Results of whole-rock analysis of the nickel ores suggest a positive relationship between Fe. 2. O. 3. and Sc contents. The limonite

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EP2370607A1 Process for separating limonite and

A method for separating nickel containing lateritic ore into limonite and saprolite fractions, the method including the steps of : (a) providing said lateritic ore in particulate form; (b) forming a slurry of said particulate ore; (c) subjecting the ore slurry to a size separation procedure to separate the limonite and saprolite fractions on a selected threshold particle size basis wherein the

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Nickel Laterites in SE Asia CSA Global

LIMONITE Ni <0.8 0.8 to 1.5 1.5 to 4 25 to 40 5 to 15 1.8 to 3 0.3 0.01 5 35 to 45 10 to 25 15 to 35 0.1 to 0.2 40 to 50 0.5 to 5 Co <0.1 Fe >50 MgO <0.5 YELLOW LIMONITE TRANSITION SAPROLITE/ GARNIERITE/ SERPENTINE FRESH ROCK 0.02 to 0.1 TROPICAL LATERITE PROFILE

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A review of selected ground penetrating radar applications

Jun 01, 2012 The absence of reflectors above this zone is characteristic of early limonite and saprolite, which contain no reflectors. Beneath the rocky saprolite zone is bedrock, which itself exhibits no radar reflectors. Borehole colour codes: yellow = limonite, green = saprolite, blue = bedrock. 2:1 vertical exaggeration.

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Laterite an overview ScienceDirect Topics

(b) 30 MHz radar profile showing the occurrence of rocky saprolite (green on boreholes) within the profile (the velocity used to convert time to depth is 0.067 m ns − 1). The absence of reflectors above this zone is characteristic of early limonite and saprolite. Beneath the rocky saprolite zone is bedrock, which exhibits no radar reflectors.

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Preliminary evaluation of GPR for nickel laterite

Apr 27, 2000 The simplified borehole and interpretation legend relates limonite to red, earthy saprolite to yellow, rocky saprolite to green, and bedrock to blue. This profile exemplifies the importance of geophysical imaging in concert with borehole drilling to 1) Water content: Variations in the percentage of bound water present is the major controlling

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Nickel Supply Energized By Electric Vehicles S&P Global

Labor costs made up 26% of total costs at sulfide operations in 2017, compared with an average of 15% across limonite and saprolite operations. This is a result of sulfide operations — which exploit hardrock deposits, sometimes at significant depth — using more complicated mining techniques, which require a greater number of employees

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Better Returns Expected From Revised Goro Nickel Laterite

Mar 13, 2009 It is covered by an iron oxide crust at surface and a high-hematite zone below, which measure 10 to 20 m thick. The first ore zone is a 10-m-thick limonite layer, which grades about 1.5% Ni. The transition zone between the limonite and underlying saprolite is enriched with cobalt and

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(PDF) The Past and the Future of Nickel Laterites kaan

[1-3; 26-30] Japanese ferronickel operations import saprolite ore from New Caledonia, Indonesia and Philippines. Most of the laterite smelters produced ferronickel. The Japanese ferronickel operations (similar to the Doniambo smelter in New Caledonia) processed high-grade nickel (>2.5 % Ni) saprolite ores to produce high carbon crude ferronickel.

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Atmospheric leach process for the recovery of nickel and

U.S. Pat. No. 3,991,159 teaches the use of saprolite ore to neutralize acid resulting from the high-pressure acid leach of limonite ore. Leaching of the saprolite fraction is carried out at high temperature (1500°-250° C.) and pressure for effective iron and aluminum rejection, but with relatively low nickel extraction from the saprolite ore.

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Ferronickel an overview ScienceDirect Topics

A high-carbon product tends to be produced by smelters that smelt calcine that is rich in nickel and low in iron (Warner et al., 2006). It is the product of strongly reducing conditions in the smelting furnace. Strongly reducing conditions give recoveries of nickel as high as 98% into the ferronickel.

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Nickel geochemistry of a Philippine laterite examined by

The Ni geochemistry of limonite and saprolite laterite ores from Pujada in the Philippines has been investigated using a mixture of laboratory and synchrotron techniques. Nickel laterite profiles are typically composed of complicated mineral assemblages, with Ni being distributed heterogeneously at the micron scale, and thus a high degree of spatial resolution is required for analysis.

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PAPER OPEN ACCESS High pressure acid leaching: a newly

limonite and saprolite from HPL mine is presented in Table 2 and Table 3. Mineralogy nickel laterite, the metallic elements mainly exist in the form of metallic oxides in ores: NiO, CoO, Co2O3, CaO, FeO, FeO(OH),MgO, MnO, ZnO and SiO2 [8]. Table 2. Limonite nickel ore composition (in %) Table 3. Limonite nickel ore composition (in %)

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Limonite From (m) Thick (m) Ni % Co % Fe

and thickness of potential economic interest, including limonite intersections averaging 3.24m @ 1.09% Nickel, 49% Iron and high-grade saprolite intersections averaging 6.6m @1.39% Nickel. A total of 147 holes for 2,792 meters (m) have been completed from a detailed infill drilling program totaling

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Tsingshan pulls the matte out from under nickel's rally

Mar 04, 2021 Saprolite is formed from chemically-weathered rock formations. Saprolite and limonite are two types of laterite ore, the world's main nickel ore

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SEDIMENTATION BEHAVIOUR OF LIMONITE-SAPROLITE

limonite-saprolite ore slurries governs the slurry throughput in the hydrometallurgical process. Ionic polymers are added to the blended slurries in gravity thickeners to improve the sedimentation rate and amount. A high initial hydraulic conductivity (ki) during and a low final void ratio (ef) at the end of sedimentation must be

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Nickel Laterites: The World’s Largest Source of Nickel

Dec 12, 2019 The saprolite and limonite zones tend to contain the higher grades of Ni and can range from 1.5-3% and 1.2-1.7% respectively. How do they form? Many factors affect the formation of nickel laterites, including the original rock the soil develops from, the climate, the rate in which weathering occurs, drainage of groundwater and the tectonic setting.

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INCREASE OF IRON CONTENT IN RELATION TO SPECIFIC

47.90% respectively at the depth of 2.00 2.70 m in the red limonite zone. The highest clay content of borehole is 43.50% at a depth of 9.00 9.50 m in the saprolite zone. The percentage of sand opposite to silt is the high percentage of sand in the red limonite zone, decreasing in the yellow limonite zone and increasing in the saprolite zone

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An overview on the possibility of scandium and REE

enriched in limonite or saprolite since Sc is relatively mobile (soluble) in a limonite zone although it is an immobile element. In acidic limonite zone Sc3+ is not likely to adsorbed on hematite and goethite. In neutral-alkaline saprolite zone Sc3+ may be partially adsorbed in saprolite

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Philippine Nickel Industry Report Metal Bulletin

• Reserve: 13.2 million DMT saprolite 1.50% Ni 37.9 million DMT limonite 1.20% Ni • Production: 1 million tons of Ni ore annually • Location: Palawan Marcventures Mining and Development Corp. • Resource: 3.5 million WMT saprolite @ 1.9% Ni; 12% Fe 62.5 million WMT limonite @ 0.83% Ni; 46% Fe • Production: 3.0 million WMT tons Ni ore

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MINDORO INTERSECTS STRONG NICKEL AND IRON GRADES

MINDORO INTERSECTS STRONG NICKEL AND IRON GRADES AT AGATA SOUTH • Highlights: 17.05m of 1.02% Ni, 10.50m of 1.06% Ni, and 11.70m of 1.07% Ni, all from surface • High iron zone intersected: 4.7m of 50% Fe, 0.59% Ni and 0.11% Co from surface EDMONTON, ALBERTA, July 06, 2011 Mindoro Resources Ltd (TSXV: MIO; ASX: MDO; Frankfurt: WKN 906167) is pleased to report

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Nickel Laterite’s Integral Role in the Coming Nickel Boom

The main advantage of the smelting process is that it is a proven technology and can process saprolite ores (high magnesium), in relative terms, quickly. As well, it has high nickel recoveries. The smelting process, however, it requires a higher grade laterite ore, a large amount of energy to operate, and finally, doesn’t separate cobalt in

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WO2009033227A1 Limonite and saprolite heap leach process

A process for the recovery of nickel and/or cobalt from a lateritic ore by heap leaching, the process including the steps of : a) forming one or more heaps from a lateritic ore body wherein that lateritic ore body includes a blend of both limonitic and saprolitic type ores; b) leaching the one or more heaps with a leach solution; and c) recovering the nickel and/or cobalt from the resultant

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Open Access proceedings Journal of Physics: Conference series

3.3. Comparison of metallization of limonite, saprolite and mix . For saprolite ore (ore mixed with coal 13%) the amount of reduced nickel metal increases after reduction is carried out for more than 30 minutes. From the temperature of 700°C, the nickel reduced was significant increase. But after 700°C, the degree of reduction will rise slowly.

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A novel hydrometallurgical approach to recover valuable

and limonite laterite ores, the theoretical R Fe/M in the laterite blends of different M saprolite/limonite was calculated, and when the M saprolite/limonite was 5:5, the R Fe/M can be about 2.0. So, during the atmospheric acid leaching process, the M saprolite/limonite was controlled at 5:5 to investi-

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Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Berong Ni-Co laterite

The saprolite horizon is particularly enriched in Ni, while the lower section of the limonite horizon is enriched in Co. The mildly acidic environmental condition (pH ≤ 6.57) in the limonite horizon was found to enhance the mobilization and re-distribution of Ni from the limonite

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